Report on Completed Efficacy Test on Tuna hydrolysate Liquid Organic Fertilizer for Corn

  1. Introduction

    This Fish hydrolysate fertilizer is an extract from tuna and is composed of essential macro and micro nutrients needed for plant growth. Being of organic origin it fits the need of today's generation of people who are concerned with the environment and thus are turning to organically grown foods and farm inputs that will not pollute the environment and harm their health.
    The organic liquid fertilizer is not only environment-friendly but also offers other benefits, namely: increase in growth and yield of crop by up to 100%, increase on resistance to pest and diseases and increase in soil population of beneficial organisms.
    As a source of plant nutrients, Tuna hydrolysate fertilizer is quick-acting being directly assimilated by plants upon application. When nutrients are applied to soil various chemical reactions subject the nutrients to losses or fixation into unavailable forms. Thus, in the long run only smaller amount of Tuna hydrolysate fertilizer may be needed to match the conventional chemical fertilizer to produce the same yield due to greater efficiency of utilization by plants.
  2. Objectives

    1. To determine the effectiveness of tuna hydrolysate liquid organic fertilizer in increasing yield of corn.
    2. To determine the best treatment of corn with tuna hydrolysate fertilizer alone or in combination with conventional fertilizer that will produce optimum corn yield.
  3. Researcher

    Dr. Wilfredo C. Cosico
    Associate Professor
    FPA Accreditation No. PNT-074-96
  4. Materials and Methods

    1. Test crop: Corn
    2. Duration of the study: January to April, 2008
    3. Location of the study: Central Experiment Station, U.P. Los Baños
    4. Reference fertilizers:
      • Complete fertilizer (14-14-14)
      • Urea (46-0-0)
      Rate: 120-30-30
    5. Test fertilizer: Tuna hydrolysate liquid organic fertilizer
    6. Composition
      Nitrogen (N) 3.1 %
      Phosphorus (P205) 0.64%
      Potassium (K2O) 0.34%
      Calcium (Ca) 0.18%
      Magnesium (Mg) 0.05%
      Sulfur (S) 0.34%
      Zinc (Zn) 43.9 ppm
      Manganese (Mn) 2 ppm
      Iron (Fe) 184 ppm
      Boron (B) 37.5 ppm
      Molubdenum (Mo) 0.08 ppm
      Copper (Cu) 26 ppm

    7. Formulation and Application
      One litre of tuna hydrolysate emulsion was mixed with 200 litres of water. About ½ litre of the mixture was sprayed per meter of the soil before ploughing.
      Another spraying at the same rate was done before planting. Henceforth spraying was done on the plants every 10 days up to peak vegetation stage.
    8. Planting distance:   75 cm x 20 cm
    9. Plot size:   5M x 4M
    10. Treatment and experimental design:
      • T1 - control (no fertilizer)
      • T2 - recommended rate of inorganic fertilizer (RRIF)
      • T3 - ½ RRIF
      • T4 - ½ + recommended rate of tuna hydrolysate liquid fertilizer (RRSF)
      • T5 - recommended rate of tuna hydrolysate fertilizer (RRSF)
      • T6 - RRIF + RRSF

      Treatments were replicated four times and arranged in randomized complete block (RCB) design. Treatment comparisons were made by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT). Yield was estimated from fresh weight of ears and whole plants in the inner rows of each plot, which measured 20 sq M per plot.

  5. Data gathered

    1. Weight of grains (tons/ha)
    2. Stover yield or biomass (tons/ha)
    3. Average plant height at 30 and 60 days after planting
    4. Incidence of pests and diseases
    5. General vigor and appearance of plants
    6. Initial soil fertility status
    7. Climate (rainfall)
    Field Layout
    Tuna Hydrolysate Liquid Organic Fertilizer for Corn
    REP 4 T4 T1 T3 T6 T2 T5
    REP 3 T3 T5 T4 T2 T1 T6
    REP 2 T1 T4 T2 T5 T6 T3
    REP 1 T5 T3 T6 T4 T1 T2
    Plots are 5 meters x 4 meters with 1 meter between rows.
  6. Results and Discussion

    Table 1 shows that when combined with the full rate of conventional fertilizers at the rate of 120-30-30, tuna hydrolysate markedly increased corn ear yield by nearly 1 ton/ha or by 13.7% (T2 vs T6). When applied on unfertilized plants tuna hydrolysate increased corn ear yield by 1.22 tons/ha or by 37.4%. This indicates that tuna hydrolysate can supplement and partly substitute conventional fertilizers for corn.
    Tuna hydrolysate increased the number of corn ears harvested regardless of whether the plants were applied with no fertilizer, half the rate of recommended fertilizer (½ RRCF) or the full rate of recommended fertilizer (RRCF). In the unfertilized plots, tuna hydrolysate increased the number of corn ears by 2,334 (36.8%) per hectare, in the half rate fertilized plots (½ RRCF) by 5,333 ears/ha (31.4%) and in the fully fertilized plots by 4,500 ears/ha (17.2%). Thus, it appears that in terms of number of ears produced tuna hydrolysate was most effective when no fertilizer or only a little amount of fertilizer is applied. Therefore, fish hydrolysate is a good substitute for conventional fertilizers.
    Table 4a shows that at the 1st month of growth tuna hydrolysate appears to be starting to have a positive effect on height of corn plants which received either no fertilizer or which were applied with the full rate of fertilizer (T1 vs T5 and T2 vs T6). At 60 days after planting plants treated with tuna hydrolysate whether unfertilized or fully fertilized were distinctly taller than those not treated with tuna hydrolysate.
    Table 4c also shows that whether the plants were not fertilized with conventional fertilizer, only half fertilized or fully fertilized, height of the ear of tuna hydrolysate treated plants were higher. This means that ears of tuna hydrolysate treated plants received more photosynthates from the upper leaves which can enhance ear yield.


    Table 1. Ear yield of sweet corn (tons/ha) as affected by tuna hydrolysate, 2008 DS.
    Treatment REPLICATION MEAN
    1 2 3 4
    T1 control 3.25 2.71 3.33 3.75 3.26 B
    T2 RRCF 6.46 7.04 5.27 7.14 6.48 A
    T3 ½ RRCF 6.19 7.35 5.52 5.74 6.2 A
    T4 ½ RRCF + H 6.67 5.14 6.21 6.86 6.22 A
    T5 H 4.47 4.72 4.38 4.35 4.48 B
    T6 RRCF + H 7.15 7.82 7.36 7.14 7.37 A
    RRCF = Recommended Rate of Conventional Fertilizer, 120-30-30
    H = Tuna Hydrolysate



    Table 2. Plant biomass of corn (tons/ha) as affected by tuna hydrolysate, 2008 DS.
    Treatment REPLICATION MEAN
    1 2 3 4
    T1 control 32.00 30.67 38.67 26.67 32.00 B
    T2 RRCF 38.67 33.33 30.67 52.00 38.67 B
    T3 ½ RRCF 38.22 38.67 36.00 40.00 38.22 B
    T4 ½ RRCF + H 41.33 36.00 38.89 39.33 38.89 B
    T5 H 32.89 21.33 42.67 34.67 32.89 B
    T6 RRCF + H 60.00 53.33 54.22 49.33 54.22 A
    RRCF = Recommended Rate of Conventional Fertilizer, 120-30-30
    H = Tuna Hydrolysate



    Table 3. Number of corn ears/ha as affected by Tuna Hydrolysate, 2008 DS.
    Treatment REPLICATION MEAN
    1 2 3 4
    T1 control 6332 8000 7000 4000 6333 D
    T2 RRCF 26168 31000 21000 26500 26167 A
    T3 ½ RRCF 17000 19500 16000 15500 17000 BC
    T4 ½ RRCF + H 16500 29500 22332 21000 22333 AB
    T5 H 8668 6500 7000 12500 8667 CD
    T6 RRCF + H 30668 39000 32000 21000 30667 A
    RRCF = Recommended Rate of Conventional Fertilizer, 120-30-30
    H = Tuna Hydrolysate



    Table 4a. Plant height (cm) of corn at 30 DAP as affected by Tuna Hydrolysate, 2008 DS.
    Treatment REPLICATION MEAN
    1 2 3 4
    T1 control 74.2 77.7 73.1 71.9 74.2 B
    T2 RRCF 99.1 109.5 98.7 100.4 101.9 A
    T3 ½ RRCF 108.7 114.3 98.4 94 103.9 A
    T4 ½ RRCF + H 106.5 101.5 87.5 93.6 97.3 A
    T5 H 91.9 72.2 79 75.1 79.5 B
    T6 RRCF + H 106.7 105.4 113.1 101.8 106.8 A
    RRCF = Recommended Rate of Conventional Fertilizer, 120 - 30 - 30
    H = Tuna Hydrolysate



    Table 4b. Plant height (cm) of corn at 60 DAP as affected by Tuna Hydrolysate, 2008 DS.
    Treatment REPLICATION MEAN
    1 2 3 4
    T1 control 186.0 196.3 188.2 172.0 185.6 C
    T2 RRCF 209.2 213.3 210.0 212.8 211.3 AB
    T3 ½ RRCF 199.2 220.0 203.0 205.8 207.0 B
    T4 ½ RRCF + H 197.3 213.3 210.0 203.3 206.0 B
    T5 H 181.7 187.3 199.0 196.0 191.0 C
    T6 RRCF + H 217.5 211.2 225.8 220.0 218.6 A
    RRCF = Recommended Rate of Conventional Fertilizer, 120 - 30 - 30
    H = Tuna Hydrolysate



    Table 4c. Ear height (cm) of corn at 60 DAP as affected by Tuna Hydrolysate, 2008 DS.
    Treatment REPLICATION MEAN
    1 2 3 4
    T1 control 97.3 91.5 89.5 87.8 91.5 B
    T2 RRCF 115.5 125.3 113.7 121.7 119.0 A
    T3 ½ RRCF 109.2 123.0 106.5 115.8 113.6 A
    T4 ½ RRCF + H 114.8 117.5 122.7 118.3 118.3 A
    T5 H 92.8 99.5 103.0 112.0 101.8 B
    T6 RRCF + H 134.2 118.7 131.7 116.2 125.2 A
    RRCF = Recommended Rate of Conventional Fertilizer, 120 - 30 - 30
    H = Tuna Hydrolysate



    Ear yield of sweet corn
    Plant biomass of corn.
    Number of corn ears/ha
    Plant height (cm) of corn
    Plant height (cm) of corn at 60 DAP
    Ear height (cm) of corn at 60 DAP


    Corn plots
    T1. Control
    T2. Rec. Rate inorg. Fert (120-30-30)
    T3. ½ RRIF
    T4. ½ RRIF + Rec. Rate of Tuna Hydrolysate Liquid Fertilizer
    T5. RRSF
    T6. RRIF + RRSF
    Corn plots
    Growth of sweet corn treated with Tuna Hydrolysate at 60 DAP
    Figure 5. Growth of sweet corn treated with Tuna Hydrolysate at 60 DAP.


    Corn plots
    T1. Control
    T2. Rec. Rate inorg. Fert (120-30-30)
    T3. ½ RRIF
    T4. ½ RRIF + Rec. Rate of Tuna Hydrolysate Liquid Fertilizer
    T5. RRSF
    T6. RRIF + RRSF
    Corn plots
    Growth of sweet corn treated with Tuna Hydrolysate at 60 DAP
    Figure 6. Growth of sweet corn treated with Tuna Hydrolysate at 60 DAP.


    Corn plots
    T1. Control
    T2. Rec. Rate inorg. Fert (120-30-30)
    T3. ½ RRIF
    T4. ½ RRIF + Rec. Rate of Tuna Hydrolysate Liquid Fertilizer
    T5. RRSF
    T6. RRIF + RRSF
    Corn plots
    Growth of sweet corn treated with Tuna Hydrolysate at 60 DAP
    Figure 7. Growth of sweet corn treated with Tuna Hydrolysate at 60 DAP.
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